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雅思阅读在语法方面要注意的问题

时间:2016-04-26 10:29:16 作者: 点击数:

. 长句的处理

总所周知,雅思阅读的三篇文章都比较长,而且单词也相对比较难。然后最让考生头痛的就是几乎一半以上的句子都是长句。而所谓的对长句的处理就是指能清楚地知道这个长句的主干在是什么呢,基本上指的就是这个长句的主谓宾或主谓表是什么。这样的话,就大大减轻了考生的负担和压力。因为主干的单词往往都相对而言比较简单,并且,主干上的意思基本上就是作者的要表达的意义。当然,还有一个点是能弄懂长句的比较有立竿见影的好处就是出题者的出题特点。

我们先来看几个例子

1、题目:Research completed in 1982 found that in the United States soil erosion…C3T2P2

A reduced the productivity of farmland by20 percent

B was almost as severe as in India and China

C was causing significant damage to 20 per cent of farmland

D could be reduced by converting cultivated land to meadow or forest

原文:The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil‘s productivity.

很明显,原文是一个长句,而对于长句的处理就是找出主干,我们可以看出来,这个句子的主干是The United States discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland was losing topsoil. 所以答案就非常明显应该选择C.所以你会发现很多考生都会选的A项经过对此长句的分析,它根本就不在此长句的主干,也就是说这是对作者要表达的意思的补充说明。从这里我们可以看出,出题者对干扰项的出题思路,干扰项所在的位置都是定位句子的非主干部分。

2、题目:Paragraph B How the port changes a city‘s infrastructure C2T2P3

原文:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railway, highways and air routes. Water transport means cheap access, the chief basis of all port cities. Many of the world‘s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aries, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports—that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function—but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects, so that their port functions are no longer dominant. They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.

做这一道题的时候,考生只要知道出题者的出干干扰项的思路,就不会选 How the port changes a city‘s infrastructure这个小标题。很多考生之所以会选这个答案,很大程度上是因为第一句:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals because of their water connections and the urban concentration which arises there and later draws to it railway, highways and air routes. city’s infrastructure想对应的就是railway, highways and air routes.然而我们可以看到这个长句的主干是:Port cities become industrial, financial and service centers and political capitals.故这个小标题是个干扰项。

3、题目:Paragraph B Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion

Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion C2T1P2

原文:At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today. In exploring the scope of health promotion it states thatGood health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economical, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it.WHO, 1986

The Ottawa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. It presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. The overall philosophy of health promotion which guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of ‘enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. WHO, 1986

同样的道理,我们之间看到,这里的第一句:At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health.这个句子的主干就是:a charter was developed.所以小标题中的Ottawa International Conference on Health Promotion 就是干扰项的常用的招数。

从以上的例子,我们可以发现出题者的出题特点,基本上,正确答案一定是主干上的同意转化,而干扰项上的答案都出自定语上。所以这也就是为什么烤鸭若能完全掌握长句的处理,短期内会有一定的提高。

二、时态

在雅思阅读中,时态所谓是阅读中最简单最显而易见的一个特殊点。所谓特殊点当然是指在一个普遍存在的现象中与众不同的一点。雅思阅读的文章都是学术类的文章,故此类文章基本上采用的就是一般现在时。因此,除了一般现在时的其他时态在阅读的题目中都非常地特殊。

我们先来看几个例子

1、题目:Paragraph F ii Who is planning what C2T3P3heading

原文:Around the world, the market is growing rapidly. Malaysia, for example, is preparing to equip all of its airports with biometric face of cash dispensers is developing new machines that incorporate iris scanner…

这是剑桥二的真题,这里出现了一个很特殊的时态—现在进行时。很明显,如果考生清楚雅思时态的特殊性的话,就会有一个正确的做题方向。

2、题目:sensors C6T1P1 classification

A are currently exclusively used by Australians

B will be used in the future by Australians

C are currently used by both Australians and their rivals

 原文:They are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete‘s clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete’s ability to run.

这是剑桥六的真题,是分类。这里出现的特殊时态—将来时,所以考生做题就很明显分两类,定位后先看时态,如果是一般现在是或过去时,那答案就非AC;如果定位到的地方是现在进行时和将来时,很明显答案是B.此外,在雅思考试中,涉及到将来时态的关键词还有in the future long-term.等等。

3、题目:a comparison of past and present transportation methods C2T3P3 段落细节matching

原文:CUntil a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20 km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse. Heavy freight could only be carried by water or tail. The invention of the motor vehicle brought personal mobility to the masses and made rapid freight delivery possible over a much wider area…

这里出现的特殊时态是过去时,所以考生也很容易发现只有C自然段一开始就出现了过去时。此外,涉及过去时的关键词还有former, historical, past, previous等等。

三、连接词and, such as,冠词a, the 的使用

我们知道雅思阅读考试的核心是定位,当然这些虚词都无法帮助定位。但是这些虚词同样可以给考试一个比较好的做题方向。表示并列关系的and, or, as well as等等连接词,在定位的时候就可以用定位词和这种关系来精确定位。因为并列关系非常的简单且表明这两个词的关系非常地密切。

我们先来看几个例子。

题目:The territory of Nunavut consists of little more than ice, rock and a few…C6T1P3 summary

原文:Nunavut is 1.9 million square kilometers of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around the North Pole.

一看到and并列关系,所以这道题就很明显用ice, rock来定到位,然后就很明显和这两个词保持并列关系的是islands.

题目:For thousands of years they have had to rely on catching…and…as a means of sustenance. C6T1P3 summary原文:Human first settled in the Arctic a mere 45000 years ago, surviving by exploiting sea mammals and fish.

这道题也是非常的简单,要填的两个空是并列结构,而且有个很好的定位词thousands可以很快定到位,然后抄两个保持并列结构的名词。因此,答案应该是sea mammals, fish.

题目:In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English has neither the … nor the … to express their ideas. C5T2P3 summary

原文:First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the word in an objective and impersonal way…

这一题的并列结构就有点略难了,因为这种并列结构是分布在两个句子里。所以基本上雅思中的丙类结构分两种,一种是直接用and, or, as well as,一种就是分布在两个连着的句子。

题目:Language problems may come to the attention of the public when they have… such as fatal accidents or social problems. C2T2P2 sentence completion

原文:Publicity comes only when a failure to communicate has major consequences, such as strikes, lost orders, legal problems, or fatal accidents- even, at times, war.

这里要强调的是这里要填的词和fatal accidents or social problems保持的是包含关系,和并列关系相区别下。只要注意一下,就可以知道答案就是major consequences.此外,表示包含关系的词还有for example, like, including.

题目:A genetic problem cannot be treated with drugs because strictly speaking it is not a …C2T4P3 sentence completion

原文:None of the single-gene disorders is a disease in the conventional sense, for which it would be possible to administer a curative drug…

有一点一定要记住,THE常有,A不常有。所以一旦用DRUG定到位后,可以非常迅速得找出A后面紧跟的名词。所以这道题的答案就是DISEASE.

题目:Johnson did not have a… available to him, but eventually produced definitions of in excess of 40000 words written down in 80 large notebooks. C5T1P1 summary

原文:Filling about eighty large notebooks and without a library to hand, Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40000 words, and illustrated their many meanings with some 114000 quotations draw from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time.

题目:As a reward for his hard work, he was granted a … by the king. C5T1P1 summary

原文:The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension.

这些例题的共同点就是所填的空之前有一个a,这里考生只要知道一点,你抄的单词基本上就定位到的地方的a的后面的词就对了。所以特别在指出的是一篇文章中的a是有限的,所以这也是一个特殊点。

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